Overview[ edit ] During the Neolithic era starting at c. Europe saw massive migrations from east and southeast which also brought agriculture, new technologies, and the Indo-European languages, primarily through the areas of the Balkan peninsula and the Black sea region.
The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history. Many scholars see it as a unique time with characteristics all its own.
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The Renaissance Few historians are comfortable with the triumphalist and western Europe-centred image of the Renaissance as the irresistible march of modernity and progress. A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world and nature, and a recovery of the cultural heritage of ancient Greece and Rome —these were once understood to be the major achievements of the Renaissance. Today, every particular of this formula is under suspicion if not altogether repudiated.
Italy During the Renaissance Italian Trade Cities Italian city-states trading during the late Middle Ages set the stage for the Renaissance by moving resources, culture, and knowledge from the East. Learning Objectives Show how Northern Italy and the wealthy city-states within it became such huge European powers Key Takeaways Key Points While Northern Italy was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosper. In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest cities in Northern Italy. Florence became the center of this financial industry, and the gold florin became the main currency of international trade.
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Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century , who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.
The art of the Italian Renaissance was influential throughout Europe for centuries. Renaissance artworks depicted more secular subject matter than previous artistic movements.